1st step

■ Do you have any chemicals/chemical products in your home?
■ What chemicals/chemical products do you have in your home?

2nd step


In Parts 1 and 2 students find out more about the many
chemical products which people use in their homes. They also
examine the labelling of these products and learn about the
international symbols for labelling chemical substances.
They have an opportunity to make and test a chemical


Research by interview, or from secondary sources, to investigate a local story related to chemistry and to discover an example of the importance of chemistry to the local, regional or national economy.

mercoledì 3 giugno 2009

  • The ethilic alcohol helps the breakup of the bond between the fat acid and the glycerine, that is it favours the hydrolysis.

  • The sodium chloride replaces the water and forms the molecules of soap.

  • The sodium chloride is also called sodium hydroxide.

26.We put the mixture of alcohol, oil, caustic soda and water in the water with sodium chloride.
27.We put the mixture and we allowed to rest a little time.
28.We filtered with a filter paper and a funnel the content of the becker.
29.We got some micelles of soap.
30.We rinsed produced soap with water to remove caustic soda, used during the production of

the soap.

21.After saponification, we waited some seconds.
22.We removed the erlenmeyer flask from the becker on the heater.
23.We allowed to cool the mixture in the erlenmeyer flask.
24.We measured 15 grams of sodium chloride and 60 ml of water.
25.We put the water in a becker and we untied sodium chloride in the water in the becker.
16.We added the olive oil in the erlenmeyer flask.
17.We turned the mixture in the erlenmeyer flask with a plastic spoon.
18.We made attention that the mixture always boiled not very strong.
19.We waited that the mixture become soap that is it grew tick.
20.The isothermic reaction produces heat.

11.We used a spalsher to add the water.
12.We used a turkey baster to remove the water in excess, in this way the water in the becker

didn’t fall in the erlenmeyer flask.
13.We took a fat:the extrravergin olive oil which is a mixture of triglicerides.
14.We measured 10 millimeters of olive oil.
15.We waited that the mixture of water, alcohol and caustic soda in the erlenmeyer flask boiled.

6.We added the caustic soda in the erlenmeyer flask.
7.We put on an heater a becher, full of water.
8.We waited that the water boiled in the becher.
9.We put the erlenmeyer flask (with the watrer, the alcohol and the caustic soda) in the becker.
10.We set the erlenmeyer flask on a clamp, because the mixture inside the beuta didn’t mix with

the water in the becker.

1.We measured 80 ml of water and 20 ml of ethilic alcohol in a graduated cylinder.
2.We filled the erlenmeyer flask with 80 ml of water.
3.We put inside the beuta 20 ml of ethilic alcohol, too.
4.We steared the mixture.
5.We measured 25 grams of caustic soda (the molecular mass of the caustic soda is 40 MM).

martedì 19 maggio 2009

the history of soap

The manufacture of the soap is one of the most ancient chemical trials of syntesis, but it’isn’t so ancient as that of the production of ethilic alcohol; evidently the men’s aspiration to the cleaning is more recent than their tendency to the drunkenness.
At the Caesar’s time, Teutonis boiled the fat of goat with the potassium hydroxide which was derived from burnt wood. Thanks to this procedure, they effected the same chemical reaction that the modern manufactures of soap apply: the hydrolysis of triglycerides, that produces the salts of carboxylic acids and the glycerine.
Normal soap is usually a mixture of salts of sodium.
The composition and the method of production of the soap can vary: if soap is prepared with olive oil, Marsiglia soap is produced; alcohol can be addedto make the soap transparent; perfumes dyes and germicidies can be asdded too.
Hard soap is produced with sodium salts, on the contrary if potassium salts are used, soft soap is produced.

By Antonella

sabato 9 maggio 2009

Uploaded on authorSTREAM by Stacho

giovedì 23 aprile 2009

Pharmacy-By Verdiana C

Pharmacy - for treating disease By Verdiana C.

Antibiotic Ingredients : Bactrim sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim

Syrup Ingredients: Nureflex ibuprofen

Chemical Formula: C6H4(OCOCH3)CO2H

Aspirin Ingredients: Acetylsalicylic acid

Cortisone Acetate Ingredients: calcium stearate, corn starch, lactose, mineral oil, sorbic acid, sucrose.

The most common ingredient in shampoos is known as straight-chain alkyl benzene sulfonates. An example is Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate, or its sodium relative, or the slightly larger related molecule ammonium lauryl ether sulfate, sometimes abbreviated as ammonium laureth sulfate.

Natural mineral, Salts, Ammonium alum

Today, soaps are made from fats and oils that react with lye (sodium hydroxide). Solid fats like coconut oil, palm oil, tallow (rendered beef fat), or lard (rendered pork fat), are used to form bars of soap that stay hard and resist dissolving in the water left in the soap dish.


Phospate of fluorine, NaF

Detergents are cleansing products that may include bar
soaps and liquid gels for cleaning the hands, face or body; detergent powders or cakes for laundry cleaning purposes;
Emmolients, citric acid, fresh fruits , aloe,
humectants etc..


Surface-active, anion , phosphate and perfume

WHASING UP LIQUID:Acids, alcohol etc..



Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. It is the principal component of natural gas. Burning methane in the presence of oxygen produces carbon dioxide and water. The relative abundance of methane and its clean burning process makes it a very attractive fuel. However, because it is a gas at normal temperature and pressure, methane is difficult to transport from its source. Methane in the atmosphere is eventually oxidized, producing carbon dioxide and water. The radiative forcing effect due to this increase in methane abundance is about one-third of that of the CO2 increase. The Earth's crust contains huge amounts of methane. Large amounts of methane are produced anaerobically by methanogenesis. Methane is a significant contributor to global warming and the Kyoto protocol seeks to regulate its production.

Mineral oil
All oils, with their high carbon and hydrogen content, can be traced back to organic sources. Mineral oils, found in porous rocks underground, are no exception, as they were originally the organic material, such as dead plankton, accumulated on the seafloor in geologically ancient times. Through various geochemical processes this material was converted to mineral oil, or petroleum, and its components, such as kerosene, paraffin waxes, gasoline, diesel and such. These are classified as mineral oils as they do not have an organic origin on human timescales, and are instead derived from underground geologic locations, ranging from rocks, to underground traps, to sands.Other oily substances can also be found in the environment, the most well-known being asphalt, occurring naturally underground or, where there are leaks, in tar pits.Petroleum and other mineral oils, (specifically labelled as petrochemicals), have become such a crucial resource to human civilization in modern times they are often referred to by the ubiquitous term of "oil" itself.

Wood is an organic material; in the strict sense it is produced as secondary xylem in the stems of trees (and other woody plants). In a living tree it conducts water and nutrients to the leaves and other growing tissues, and has a support function, enabling woody plants to reach large sizes or to stand up for themselves. However, wood may also refer to other plant materials with comparable properties, and to material engineered from wood, or wood chips or fiber.People have used wood for millennia for many purposes, primarily as a fuel or as a construction material for making houses, tools, weapons, furniture, packaging, artworks, and paper. Wood can be dated by carbon dating and in some species by dendrochronology to make inferences about when a wooden object was created. The year-to-year variation in tree-ring widths and isotopic abundances gives clues to the prevailing climate at that time.

Personal Care by Giulia M

Mascara pigments (i.e. carbon black and iron oxide), oils (i.e. lanolin, eucalyptus oil, mineral oil) , waxes(i.e. carnauba wax, beeswax and paraffin), water. Sometimes vitamins are added such as pro-vitamin B5.

Eye Shadow titanium dioxide, mica, iron oxides, ferric ferrocyanide.

Powder cheek Talc, Kaolin, Mineral Oil, Zinc Stearate, Silica, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, Butylparaben, D&C Red No. 7 Calcium Lake, D&C Red NO. 36, Titanium Dioxide, Ultramarine Blue.

martedì 7 aprile 2009

Chemistry in our homes

Here is our grid after looking for Chemistry in our homes!!!!


Common example of a product in our homes

Source: natural o manufactured and country of origin

Ingredients listed on the label


For adding to food during cooking

For preserving food

Oil, salt, spices(pepper, hot pepper, cinnamon)wine, vinegar, sugar, onion, garlic

Vinegar, oil, garlic and mentha

Natural: oil(Italy), wine(France), pepper, hot pepper(Mexico), onion and garlic

Manufactured: vinegar and salt

Wine: water, alcohol, grape juice

Salt: NaCl


For keeping people clean

Shampoo, deodorant, soap

Tooth-paste, detergent,

Shower gel

All manufactured


Tooth-paste :phosphate

of fluorine, NaF

For washing clothes

For cleaning surfaces such as floors ,walls or windows

Softening, ammonia,


Washing up liquid, detersive floor wax

Natural: ammonia

Manufactured: detersive, softening

All manufactured


Ammonia: NH3

Detersive: surface-active, anion , phosphate and perfume

Personal care

For cosmetic use

For colouring hair

Mascara, eye shadow, phard, lipstick, lip-gloss, foundation, eyeliner, lip liner

Hair dyed

All manufactured



Foundation: Cyclomentique, aqua, gly cerin, titanium and dioxide


For treating disease

Aspirin, pills, tablet, sirocco, antibiotic, suppository, cortisone

All manufactured


Pills(travel gum): Si, dextrin, talc, Mg, glucose, Ti, Ca, aroma of mint


For use as a fuel(cooking, heating, transportation)

Petrol, diesel, oil(transportation)

Coal, gas, alcohol(cooking)

Gas, olive, wood residue(heating)

Natural: petrol(U.S.A, Russia, Iraq and Iran)

Wood: north Europe

Gas(U.S.A and Russia)

Petrol: Petrol Paraffin, Kerosene, benzene, wax, Asphalt and Bitumen

Plant growth and protection

For growing plants

For killing insect pests

Water, manure, soil, sun bait, fertilizer

Pesticide, insecticide

Natural: water, manure, soil, sun bait

Manufactured: fertilizer


giovedì 2 aprile 2009

My name is Alexander. I was born in Washington DC, USA, but now I live in Romania. My hobby is listening to techno music and mixing some music on Virtual Dj but I also like playing games. My favourite subject is Chemistry and I also like Mathematics. In the future, I want to enter Politics, that is my dream! I believe that this project will not only increase our knowledge in Chemistry but it will also help us work together and meet new people.

My name is Vlad and I’m a student in the 9th grade at “Lauder-Reut High school”. I’m born on the 14th of July 1993. I play tennis 2-3 times per week. In my free-time I like: listening to music, taking photos, playing football, swimming and hangin’ out with my friends. I like to see movies, watching TV and surfing the Internet. Also I like to be involved in projects that are regarding freedom (of speech, expression etc), recycling and the natural environment.

My name is Marcel, I am in the Lauder-Reut High-school for more than 10 years. I like playing football, basketball and tennis with my friends when I am free.(also like chemistry)

Eyal: I myself may consider that I'm different than other people. I think I'm a little bit too calm for the society of today that makes you be a little "monster" .I also think I am fit (more thin than fit) and very sporty. I like playing basketball, football, and I also like to practice football using a very small ball. Socially speaking I think I'm not so popular however I consider myself friendly and peaceful. Even if sometimes I get mad at my friends (or the other way around) we get together faster than anyone expects.
Speaking of myself I think I'm just an ”OK” looking teenager, pretty thin with nice, blue eyes (everyone says that) and an overall good look. Mentally I think I go well at school, however not brilliantly well .My strongest passions at school are chemistry, sports and arts.
My biggest hobbies are photography, digital art, Basketball. Art is one strong passion for me that I've discovered a little time ago trying to find out what I'm good at. Basketball is a sport I've practiced since I was a little boy.

My name is Laura and I`m 16 years old. I like to be happy, optimistic and free. My motto is: 'Live the moment'.

My name is Michael Radu or Mike for short. I was born and I grew up in Ramat Gan, Israel. I've recently moved to Romania for a greater opportunity and such. My favourite school subjects are chemistry, mathematics and a bit of physics. Even though I started studying chemistry in the 7th grade, it has been constantly exciting me and found it very inspiring. I like playing many sports, my favourite ones are American Football alongside Soccer. My hobbies are going out with friends, hanging out, going sometimes to the cinema and listening to music.

Hi, I'm Ada and I'm 15. I love to do funny things, like hanging out with my friends, dancing, singing, taking pictures etc. I'm very optimistic and I try my best to be happy all the time. But, I'm not afraid to raise my voice when I know I'm right. Hope you'll enjoy our project.

Hi! My name is Yardena and I’m 15 years old. I like summer, purple, blue, hearing the birds in the morning, singing, music, dancing, drinking hot chocolate when I’m cold, hanging out with my friends in the park, parties, clubs, photographs, sweets, etc. I hate people who hate me, liars, people who pretend to know everything even though they don’t.

Hi! My name is Matt, I live in Bucharest, Romania, I am 16 years old and I attend high school. I like playing computer games, going out with my friends in the park or to the cinema. I love biking, I am in a BMX crew with which I go to contests. My favourite food is pizza.

My name is William. I have brown eyes and brown hair. I love sports. I play at Dinamo Club. My hobby is playing computer games, like Counter Strike and FIFA.

I am Amalia, 15 years old. The things I like: music, clubs, parks, bikes, sun, snow, seaside, running, doing sports, summer nights, chocolate, weaking up at 9 in the morning, watching TV, going out with my friends, baking cookies, dancing, travelling, hot chocolate. Things I hate: lies, bad people, not knowing something.

I am Yvonne. I was born on the 26th of April in 1993. Things I like: doing projects (for school), reading good books, listening to music, dancing, going to parties, jogging, English and Chemistry lessons, laughing, watching extreme sports. Things I hate: liars, mean and cruel people, waking up early in the morning.

Something about me: I am Ioana. I'm in the 9th grade and I really like my mates and my teachers. They are special. I have done ballet for performance. Now I'm doing it like a hobby. Also, I love to make choregraphies, to read and to write. I'm friendly and sociable even if I don't speak very much. I'm fascinated by mystic cultures and languages. This is why, I Iearned (a little bit of) Hebrew and (a little bit of) Japanese.

Here we are

mercoledì 1 aprile 2009


We are students in the 9th grade at Lauder-Reut High School, from Bucharest, Romania. Our high school is a bilingual private institution. We are studying in Romanian and English. The profile of our high school is business, media and diplomacy, but we are interested in lots of things.
Here we are going to introduce ourselves......

lunedì 16 marzo 2009

Polska - Poland - Polonia - Polonya

Here we are - The Union of Lublin 3rd Comprehensive School

We live in Lublin, an old Polish town which history has reached the 13th Century. This is the largest city on the eastern side of the Vistula River - the longest river in Poland, and the capital of Lublin Voivodeship with a population of 355,954 people. It is Poland's ninth largest city.
We've got a beautiful castle, a huge cathedral and a 'Trynitarska' Tower where we can see a breathtaking view of Lublin.
Lublin is a great city, really open for young people. There is 5 universities with over 85,000 of students, which placed Lublin as the most students' city in Poland. We've got lots to do here, fantastic clubs and lots of places where we can meet with our friends. As well as night-life there are lots of places where we can improve our talents and make our horizonts wider, as the example - a centre of culture, schools of dance, languages schools great theatres and cinemas.

Our school
A school is a place where we spend most of our time, but our school is a nice place to spend time, even if sometimes life gets really tough there. Techers are nice as well as students themselves.
The school was established on 7th October 1921, which places it among the oldest institutions of the sort in the district's capital. Our school has about 700 pupils, there are lots of profiles - economic, humanistic, jurnalist, dramatic or scientific. Not only the results of education make its position strong, but also a variety of extracurricular activities offered, e.g. drama, film and newspaper workshops, mathematics club and various sports classes. There are approx. 30 different such classes on offer.
The school community members also pride themselves on their choir, ‘Kantylena’, which has been awarded many times in all-Poland reviews. Our school cooperates with many universities and cultural institutions, which makes gaining education there even more attractive. This enables students to implement projects which go beyond the constraints of traditional education. Among the graduates, (more than 9,000 already), there are people holding eminent positions, such as: writers, politicians and artists.
We're all from science profiled class, we're mostly intrested in biology and chemistry and we want to be a doctor or a scientist.

sabato 14 marzo 2009

Our class

My name is Patrycja and I’m sixteen years old. I was born on the 23rd of May 1992. I live in small town in Lubelskie province, which name is Milejów. We have got one HS in my place, but I’ve chosen III LO in Lublin, because it is one of the best Polish schools. I’m brown hair girl with grey eyes. I’m not very tall, but I like my size.
I have a brother, whose name is Maciej. He is 21 and he loves playing computer games and making websites. In my opinion he is really good person, who helps everyone who needs it. My mother’s name is Beata. She is a teacher and I think she loves her job. My father’s name is Grzegorz. He is a policeman, so he has dangerous work. We live in semi-detached house and our neighbors are very nice and helpful guys. Our garden is rather big. I like sitting there in the summer. I love one big tree, which is the oldest one, but I love my small tree, too. My grandfather planted my tree on the day of my birth and it grows with me.
I go to school from Monday to Friday. School day starts sometimes at 7:30 am, sometimes at 12:15 pm. It’s hard to wake up early, but everything has got pros and cons. When you go to school at 12, you’ll finish your lessons very late, for example at 18:05 pm.
In my free time I play saxophone, read interesting books or meet with my friends. I think I’m person full of optimism, who looks at the world through pink-colored glasses. I am childish and creative and I still believe in words: “everything is poetry”. My motto is: “when something isn't hard to get - it isn't worth any attention."

My name is Monika, I’m almost 17 years old and I go to the third secondary school of the name of the Unia Lubelska in Lublin. I’m a first class student, biological-chemical profile. I think this official information will be enough. My schoolmates call me Żmijka, which means in English a viper and others call me Jabba-I think I don’t have to translate this or of course my real name. I have a lot of interests. The first-swimming. It is my favourite sport, I've swum twice a weak since I was 9. Other way for spending my time is music-I like listening to music and play the piano. I’m not a virtuoso performer, I’m rather crummy, but I don’t care Apart from that I really like watching the films, singing and dancing, but only on parties. I’m outgoing, rather reasonable, lively, helpful, sometimes bad-tempered, but sometimes calm and quiet. One of my defects is that I’m from time to time stubborn, cheeky and too talkative. It’s enough, I think.

I'm Agnieszka. I’m sixteen years old, I was born on the 7th of September 1992. I live in Lublin, it’s a city in the eastern Poland. Despite my name is Agnieszka, everybody calls me Stasio, so you can use this name, when you want to call me ;) I’m a student I go to the high school in Lublin. I go to a science profiled class, so I learn biology and chemistry for the most of my time. I want to be a doctor in the future, because I like helping other people. I was a volunteer at home for orphaned children for three years and it was a great experience. I’m rather thin and very tall (180 cm.), I’ve got blue eyes and brown straight hair.
I have many interests, but I have three things I love doing. First of them is dance, actually country dancing. It has been my passion for eight years. I learn how to dance different dances, I think I can dance polish national dances very well, but I also learn how to dance dances from other countries – like Tarantella, an Italian dance, this dance was really great!
The second thing is music – I really enjoy listening to the music as well as playing a bass guitar. I have played for three years and I love it! I like rock music – U2, The Police or Red Hot Chili Peppers.
And the last thing is eating and sleeping – I’m not a lazy person, I’m just slow, when I don’t have to be in hurry I’m not in hurry, I always have time to take a nap or cook something, I love cooking, and eating what I have cooked, of course. I’m a sleepyhead and I’m not shy about it ;)
I have one sister – her name is Monika, she’s 24 years old, she studies medicine. My parents are both doctors.
I’m really sociable, I like to meet new people, so I think our cooperation will be really great!

My name is Magda. I'm 17 years old and I was born on the 4th of January 1992. I live in Lublin and I go to school there. I attend to the third secondary school which has name of Unia Lubelska. I chose science profiled class becouse my favourite subjects are biology and chemistry. I'm slim and rather short girl with dark brown eyes and dark brown hair. I 'm an only child but I don't feel lonely because I have got a dog and good friends. My dog is a very nice pet. His name is Gufi and he is very small and black. He is 6 years old but he is very energetic and friendly animal. I have got a lot of interests. In my free time I draw. I like it becouse it is very relaxing. I think that the best subjects for my drawings are people and their portraits. Aside from this I also like dancing, unfortunately I' m not a good dancer. But in the nearest future I want to enroll on dancing course. I love swimming and riding by bike. In my spare time I often go out with my friends. We are spending very good time together. I'm nice, outgoing, ambitious and sometimes shy person :)

My name is Peter and I'm almost 17, I was born on the 24th of September 1992. I study in The Union Of Lublin 3rd Comprehensive School in Lublin and I live here. I interest in sport: football, handball and winter sports. I love snowboarding and bike riding. I like playing computer games. I'm tall and big guy. I've got a long hair and greens eyes. My friends say that I often talk too much. I like winter and summer, I hate autumn. I like watching history movies. I often listen to rap or hip-hop music.

My name is Ula.  I am 17 years old.  I attend to 3rd Grammar School in Lublin. My profile is biological and chemical. My school friends call me Urszulem, Ulencja, Michaelem. In my free time I read books and listen to music. I am keen on going to the cinema. I prefer psychological films. Handball is my passion. I have played it since I was 10. Nowadays I play in a handball team in Lublin where I am  main player.

venerdì 6 marzo 2009


My name is Graziana and I’m fourteen years old. I was born on the 31st of August in 1992 in Castellana, a town in the province of Bari, in Puglia, in the south-east of Italy. I’m tall and thin, I have got long brown wavy hair and green eyes. I have got glasses too. My mother name is Annamaria but everyone calls her Anna. She’s tall and thin. She has got short brown straight hair and brown eyes. She has got glasses too. My mother is fifty-two years old and she is a housewife. My father name is Giovanni Martino but everyone calls him Giovanni. He is tall and thin. He has got short brown wavy hair and brown eyes. My father is fifty-four and he is a businessman. I live in Cisternino, a small town in the province of Brindisi. I have some pets: one she-dog, four cats and one parrot. My she-dog name is Bianca(Whitey). She is four years hold and she has got white coat, brown eyes, long ears and a short tail. She is a faithfuln friend! My four cats names are Sasha, Minsk, Musetta and Macchia. Sasha is nine months and she has got long white coat, short ears, blue eyes and a long tail. Sasha is very cuddy and warm. Minsk is ten months and she has got short black coat, short ears, brown eyes and a short tail. Minsk is very fearful. Musetta is six years old and she has got a short grey coat, short ears, green eyes and a short tail. Musetta is very shy. Macchia is seven years old and he has got short white and black coat, short ears, brown eyes and a short tail. Macchia is very warm. Parrot name is Twetty and she’s five years old. Twetty has got blue, yellow and violet feathers. She has got black eyes and orange paws. Twetty love sing very much.
My first school was nursery school named “S.Domenico Savio”. I started there when I was three. When I was six I went to primary school “S.Giovanni Bosco” in the branch in Ceglie street. When I was eleven I went to junior school named Annessa al Consrevatorio“Nino Rota” in Monopoli, a town in provice of Bari. The some years I had an entrance exam to Conservatorio for the violin class. Now I go to Liceo Classico“Galileo Galilei” in Monopoli. I go to school from Monday to Saturday. School stars at eight o’clock and finishes for two days at a quarter to twelve, while in the other days school finishes at twenty to one. After school on Monday, Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday I go to Music School. At school I study Latin, Greek, history, geography, Italian, maths, English, Physical education, religion. I like every subjects.
I help my parents very much at home. I tidy up my room and when my mother isn’t at home for work, usually in summer, I lay the table, I cook, I clear the table, I wash plates and I wash floor.
In my free time I read some romantic,mistery and horror books and I listen to classic, pop and rock music. In the summer I like running with my uncle and his dog,Gancia, in the country, I like playing with my pets and I take Bianca go out for a walk.My favourite interest is music; in fact I play violin and piano. I like it very much!

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